"If you have a garden and a library, you have everything you need." - Cicero

Category: General Article

Basics of Railway Air Brakes

Railroads are the backbone of the United States, moving goods and people across the country, freeing up road congestion and hauling things too heavy or toxic for semi-trucks to handle. Millions of tons of freight are on the railways at any given time, managed by complex systems of personnel and technology consistently improved since the first steam locomotives were invented in the early 1800s. The braking systems of these massive diesel-powered trains rely on air pressure to stop loads weighing hundreds of thousands of pounds, but how do they really work?

Where Does the Air Come From?

Air brakes rely on compressed air stored in tanks on each car. During transit, the pressure is maintained through air lines leading from the engines. When the cars are sitting uncoupled from train engines for periods of time, they are usually connected to a yard air system to maintain pressure and find tanks, valves and lines which need to be replaced or repaired. The brakes are frequently tested to ensure that they work to stop the car when needed. This air system is filtered to avoid contaminants from causing damage and buildup in the brake system.

How Are They Engaged?

Technically speaking, railcar air brakes are always engaged and need to be disengaged for travel by sending air pressure from the locomotive to the brake line. Once the brake line is pressurized, a valve is switched and the brakes are released, if the pressure is released, the valve is switched back and the brakes engage. Since the brakes are on each car as well as the locomotive, if one fails, the rest of the train can compensate, and runaways are less likely. This failsafe is one of the many improvements during the last century to improve the safety of railroads.

How Are Leaks

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Preparing To Move To a New Home

Moving from one place to another can be a complicated situation. The thought of moving every item in your house can be overwhelming. However, if you take the time to plan each detail, you can get everything ready efficiently before moving day. Here are some tips to accomplish this.

Coordinate the Movers

Research moving professionals to find one that meets your requirements and your budget. Provide them with how far they will need to travel when you ask for a quote. Schedule which day you will need them to arrive to pick up your things and transport them. Write out a plan for when each step of your move must happen and stay with it. This will have you ready on moving day. Place this calendar in a place where everyone in your family to keep them on the same page with the move.

Set Up a Budget

Look at your finances to determine how much money you can spend on your move. Take into account whether you are moving in town or across the country and add hotels and meals if you need to. Strive to stay within the number that you set. You also should factor in the costs of tape and packing materials if you need them.

Go Through Your House

As you prepare to pack your things, sort through them and decide what you want to keep and what you want to dispose of. Rent a dumpster to throw out what you will have trouble salvaging. Separate the rest into piles to sell or to donate to a local charity. Organize a garage sale to make a little extra money with the final items to get rid of.

Tell Others About Your Move

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Chapter 7 Bankruptcy in Simple Conditions

Chapter 7 Bankruptcy is the most common type of bankruptcy filed by ordinary consumers. The object of Chapter 7 submission is to obtain the release of all your unsecured debt, such as credit cards, and even most of the valuations. A “repatriation” court only means that you don’t have to pay these debts. Sounds good, right? So, how to file chapter 7 bankruptcy? Chapter 7 is a very powerful tool, giving a fresh start, free of debt, but not for everyone. To be eligible for Chapter 7 bankruptcy, the debtor must be able to show that he really cannot afford to pay part of his debt after the required living expenses. After all the necessary living expenses, such as payment of rent or mortgage, food, clothing, utilities, car payments, gasoline, insurance, and the like, there is no possible income left to pay even one hundred dollars or more against credit cards and other unsecured debt.


In addition, Chapter 7 bankruptcy also requires that if the debtor has a valuable asset that is not included in the permissible exceptions, then the asset must be submitted for liquidation (sale) to pay something to one’s creditor. The state differs in the number of exceptions or the value of assets that might be saved in Chapter 7. California, for example, states that couples who are married under the age of 65 can own a home with no more than $ 75,000 of equity, and one person under 65 may retain houses with equity of no more than $ 50,000. Other exemption amounts exist to cover vehicles of relatively low value, household furniture, equipment, and other personal assets. The most protected asset in any state is an eligible pension account. A 401 (k) or IRA, for example, is completely released or protected in most
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